• Laid foundation of Parliamentary system of
Government, the executive and legislative separated. Legislative
Assembly functioned in the model of British Parliament.
Renewed the term of East India Company for an indefinite period;
Reduced the number of Board of Directors from 24 to 18 and 6 out of
them were nominated;
• The 4th member became at par with other
members as right to vote was conferred; and further added, 6 members
known as 'Legislative Councillors'. Six Members were the Chief
Justice and a puisne judge of Calcutta Supreme Court, and four
representatives, one each from Bengal, Madras, Bombay and NWFP.
Therefore, the total number of members became 10.
• Now it
became: Governor-General, 6 members (Legislative Councillors), 4
members (Governor-General-in-Council), Commander-in-Chief.
Indian Civil Service became an open competition. Macaulay made
Chairman of the Committee.
• The Act for the first time
introduced local representation in the Indian (Central) Legislative
Council. The Governor-General's Council had six new legislative
members were appointed by the local (provincial) governments of
Madras, Bombay, Bengal and Agra.
• The Act separated, for the
first time, the legislative and executive functions of the
Council Act of 1861
• The three separate presidencies
(Madras, Bombay and Bengal) were brought into a common system
System of legislative devolution in India was inaugurated.
Act added to the Viceroy's Executive Council a fifth member - a
• For purposes of legislation, the Viceroy's Executive
Council was expanded by the addition of not less than six and not
more than 12 additional members, who would be nominated by the
Governor-General and would hold office for two years. Therefore, the
total membership increased to 17.
• Not less than half of these
members were to be non-officials.
• The legislative power was to
be restored to the Council of Bombay and Madras, while Councils were
allowed to be established in other Provinces in Bengal in 1862 and
North West Frontier Province (NWFP) in 1886, Burma and Punjab in
• In 1859, Canning had already introduced the Portfolio
system. Under this portfolio system, the work of the Government,
divided into several branches, was entrusted to different members of
the Governor General's council. The act of 1861 envisaged that the
member in-charge of his department could issue final orders with
regard to matters which concerned his department. In 1861, the
portfolio system led to creation of some kind of cabinet system.
In 1862, Lord Canning nominated three Indians to his legislative
council-the Raja of Benaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar
• The Act added to the Viceroy's executive council a fifth
member who was a jurist. For the purpose of legislation, the
Viceroy's Executive Council was expanded by the addition of not less
than 6 and not more than 12 additional members who would be nominated
by the Governor-General and would hold office for two years. Not less
than half of these members were to be non-officials.
Indian Council Act of 1909
• Councils were enlarged and direct elections were introduced.
• An Indian was to be appointed member of Governor General's executive council. 5 nominated by Governor General
• 27 elected which consisted of: (2 by special electorates, 13 by general electorates, 12 by class electorates consisting of (a) 6 elected by land holders and (b) 6 elected by Muslim constituencies.
• Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy's Executive Council')
• The separate electorate was introduced. Lord Minto has been known as 'Father of Communal Electorate'