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Friday, December 25, 2015

Japan and Spain

Japan between the wars:

a) 1918, japan was in a strong position in the far east:

a. She had a powerful navy, a great deal of influence in china, and had benefited

economically from the first world war, while the states of Europe were busy fighting

each other.

b. Japan took advantage of the situation both by providing the allies with shipping and

other goods, and by stepping into supply orders, especially in Asia, which the

Europeans could not fulfil.

b) Why did japan become a military dictatorship?

- Influential groups opposed democracy

o Democracy was not popular with army and the conservatives, who were strongly

entrenched in the upper house of parliament and in the privy council.

o The army was itching to interfere in china, which was torn by civil war .

o They were strong enough to bring the government down in 1927 and reverse his

policy.

- Corruption

- The trade boom ended

- The world economic crisis

- The situation in Manchuria

o The great trading boom of the war years lasted only until the middle of 1921,

when Europe began to revive and recover lost markets.

o Unemployment and industrial unrest developed.

o Farmers were hit by the rapidly falling price of bumper harvests.

o Farmers and industrial workers to organize themselves into a political party, they

were ruthlessly suppressed, they became hostile to the democracy.

o 1929, affected japan severely.

o Worst affected trades was export of raw silk, which went mostly to the USA,

which had no time for luxuries.

o About half population in japan was relied on the production of raw silk as well as

rice.

o There was desperate poverty, especially in the north, for which factory workers

and peasants blamed the government and big business.

o 1927, many officers, attracted by fascism , were planning to seize power and

introduce a strong nationalist government.

o Large province of china, where japan had valuable investment and trade.

o The Chinese were trying to squeeze out Japanese trade and business, which was a

severe blow to a Japanese economy already hard hit by the depression.

o Japanese army units invaded and occupied Manchuria.

o For the next thirteen years the army more or less ran the country, introducing

similar methods to those adopted in italy and Germany.

o This led to an attack on china (1937) and participation in the second world war in

the pacific.

Japan recovers

- End of the second world war japan was defeated; her economy was in ruins, factories and

- Until 1952 she was occupied by allied troops mostly American, under the command of

- For the first three years the americans aimed to make sure that japan could never again

- During 1948 the American attitude gradually changed as the cold war developed in Europe

housing destroyed by bombings.

general MacArthur.

start a war- she was forbidden to have armed forces and was given a democratic

constitution .

and the Kuomintang crumbled in china. They felt the need for a strong ally in south east

asia and began to encourage Japanese economic recovery.

- From 1950 industry recovered rapidly and by American forces were withdrawn in 1952.

a) How was japan’s rapid recovery possible?

a. American help was vital

i. Supplied aid, new equipment.

ii. Economically healthy japan meant a strong bulwark against communism in

south east asia.

b) Japanese recovery was not without its problems

b. The Korean war brought orders for military equipment and supplies.

c. The alliance with the USA meant that Japan felt well protected and was therefore

able to invest in industry money that would otherwise have gone on armaments.

d. Profits for exports were ruthlessly ploughed back into industry.

e. Recovery was helped by a series of stable governments.

a. There was a good deal of anti- American feeling in some quarters:

i. Many Japanese felt inhibited by their close ties with the USA;

ii. They felt that the americans exaggerated the threat from communist

china; they wanted good relations with china and the USSR ;

iii. The renewal of the defence treaty with the USA in 1960 caused strikes

and demonstrations.

iv. Gradually japan improved their relations with china.

b. Another problem was working class unrest at low wages and overcrowded living

conditions.

c. Japan’s prosperity caused some problems:

i. USA, Canada and western Europe that the Japanese were fooding foreign

markets with their exports while refusing to buy a comparable amount of

imports from their customers.

ii. In response japan abolished import duties on many commodities.

                The Japanese success story was symbolized by a remarkable engineering feat a tunnel 54

kilometers long linking Honshu with Hokkaido to the north.

Spain:-

a) Spain in the 1920s and 1930s:

a. The constitutional monarchy under Alfonso XIII was never very efficient and a Spanish

army sent to put down a revolt in Spanish Morocco , was massacred by the Moors.

b. 1923, general Primo de Rivera seized power , with Alfonso’s approval, and ruled for

c. He was responsible for a number of public works and he managed to end the war in

d. When the world economic crisis reached spain , Primo had to get down from the

e. 1931, republicans got control of all the large cities, Alfonso decided to abdicate to

the next seven year.

Morocco in 1925.

power.

avoid bloodshed, and a republic was proclaimed. The monarchy had been overthrown.

b) Why did civil war break out in Spain in 1936:-

1. The new republic faced some serious problems:-

2. right-wing opposition:

3. Left-wing opposition:

4. The actions of the new right-wing government:

a. Catalonia and the Basque provinces wanted independence;

b. The roman catholic church was bitterly hostile to the republic, which in return

disliked the church and was determined to reduce its power;

c. It was felt that the army had too much influence in politic and might attempt

another coup;

d. Depression, agriculture prices are falling , wine and olive exports declined, land

went out of cultivation and peasant unemployment rose.

e. In industry iron production fell by a third and steel production by almost half .

a. dominant grouping in the Cortes (parliament), the socialists and middle class

radicals, began energetically.

i. Catalonia was allowed some self-government.

ii. An attack was made on the church;

iii. A large number of army of army officers were compulsorily retired;

iv. A start was made on the nationalization of large estates;

v. Attempts were made to raise wages of industrial workers;

b. This infuriated the right-wing groups;1932, some army officers tried to overthrow

the prime minister, Manuel Azana, but was suppressed. A new right wing party,

the CEDA , was formed to defend the church and the land lords.

a. Republic was further weakened by opposition from two powerful left-wing

groups, the anarchists and the syndicalists who favored a general strike and the

overthrow of the capitalist system.

b. They organized strikes, riots and assassinations .

c. This caused even the socialists to withdraw support from Azana, who resigned. In

the following elections the right-wing parties won a majority, the largest group

being the new catholic Ceda under its leader Gil Robles.

a. The new government aroused the left to fury.

i. Cancelled most of Azana’s reforms.

ii. Interfered with the working of the new Catalan government and

iii. Refused to allow the Basques self-government.

b. Basques had supported the right in the elections , but now switched to left.

5. The new government turned out to be ineffective.

c. Left wing groups drew closer together to form a popular front. revolutionary

violence grew.

d. The miners of Asturias fought bravely but were crushed ruthlessly by troops under

the command of General Franco.

e. In elections of 1936, the Popular Front emerged victorious.

a. Socialist decided not to support it, hoping to seize power when the middle-class

republican government failed.

b. Government is incapable of keeping the order, right-wing politicians were

murdered.

c. This terrified the right and convinced them that the only way to restore order was

by a military dictatorship.

d. A group of generals, conspiring with the right, especially with the new fascist

Falange party of Jose Antonio de Rivera, had already planned a military takeover,

e. They began a revolt in Morocco, where General Franco soon assumed the

leadership. The civil war had begun.

c) The civil war 1936-39

a. By the end of 1936, the right, calling themselves nationalists, controlled much of the

north and the area around Cadiz and Seville in the south; the republicans controlled

the centre and north-east.

b. Both sides committed terrible atrocities.

c. Church suffered horrifying losses .

d. The nationalist were helped by italy and Germany.

e. The republicans received some help from Russia, but france and Britain refused to

f. The nationalist s captured Madrid and the War ended.

g. Reasons for nationalists success.

intervene.

i. Franco was extremely skilful in holding together the carious right-wing groups.

ii. The republicans were much less united.

iii. Foreign help for the nationalists was probably decisive.

d) Franco in power

a. Franco, taking the tile Caudillo (leader), but he was not a fascist;

b. He supported the church, which was given back its control over education.

c. Franco was also shrewd enough to keep spain out the second world war.

d. When Hitler and Mussolini were defeated, Franco survived and ruled spain until 1975.

e. Gradually relaxed repressiveness; elections were introduced for some members of

f. Much was done to modernize Spanish agriculture and industry and the economy was

g. Alfonso XIII ‘s grandson, Juan Carlos succeeded Franco; he showed that he was in

h. The first free elections were held in 1977, under the leadership of socialist prime

parliament.

helped by spain’s growing tourist industry.

favor of a return to all party democracy.

minister Felipe Gonzalez, spain joined the European community

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