Sunday, March 18, 2012

key to budget documents


KEY TO BUDGET DOCUMENTS

BUDGET 2012-2013

1. The Budget documents presented to Parliament comprise, besides the Finance Minister’s Budget
Speech, the following:
A Annual Financial Statement (AFS)

B. Demands for Grants (DG)
C. Appropriation Bill
D. Finance Bill
E. Memorandum Explaining the Provisions in the Finance Bill, 2012
F. Macro-economic framework for the relevant financial year
G. Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement for the financial year
H. Medium Term Fiscal Policy Statement
I. Expenditure Budget Volume-1
J. Expenditure Budget Volume-2
K. Receipts Budget
L. Budget at a glance
M. Highlights of Budget
N. Status of Implementation of Announcements made in Finance Minister’s Budget Speech of the previous
financial year.
The documents shown at Serial A, B, C and D are mandated by Art. 112,113, 114(3) and 110(a) of the
Constitution of India respectively, while the documents at Serial F, G and H are presented as per the provisions
of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003. Other documents are in the nature of explanatory
statements supporting the mandated documents with narrative or other content in a user friendly format suited
for quick or contextual references. Hindi version of all these documents is also presented to Parliament. A web
version is hosted at http://indiabudget.nic.in, with hyperlinks, intended to make surfing more efficient.

2.1 In addition to the above, individual Departments/Ministries also prepare and present to Parliament
their Detailed Demands for Grants, Outcome Budget, and their Annual Reports. The Economic Survey which
highlights the economic trends in the country and facilitates a better appreciation of the mobilization of resources
and their allocation in the Budget is brought out by the Economic Division of Department of Economic Affairs,
Ministry of Finance. The Economic Survey is presented to Parliament in advance of the Union Budget. The
web versions of these documents are normally posted by the respective Ministries/Departments on their web
sites.
2.2 To monitor the performance management of various Ministries/Departments, Result Framework
Document (RFD) system has been adopted by the Government. The RFD system is being implemented in the
various Ministries/Departments in phased manner. In Phase I of the implementation, RFD was implemented to
59 Ministries/Departments for the year 2009-10. In Phase II, 62 Ministries/Departments prepared RFD for the
year 2010-11 and in 2011-12, 74 Ministries/Departments prepared the RFD. Performance Management in the
Government is a new concept which determines the performance index based upon the agreed objectives,
policies, programs and projects/schemes. To ensure the success in achieving the agreed objectives and
implementing agreed policies, programs and projects, the RFD also includes a commitment for required
resources and necessary operational autonomy.
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3.1
A brief description of the Budget documents listed in para 1 is given below.
3. (A) Annual Financial Statement (AFS), the document as provided under Article 112, shows estimated
receipts and expenditure of the Government of India for 2012-13 in relation to estimates for 2011-12 as also
expenditure for the year 2010-11. The receipts and disbursements are shown under the three parts, in which
Government Accounts are kept viz.,(i) Consolidated Fund, (ii) Contingency Fund and (iii) Public Account.
Under the Constitution, Annual Financial Statement distinguishes expenditure on revenue account from other
expenditure. Government Budget, therefore, comprises Revenue Budget and Capital Budget. The estimates
of receipts and expenditure included in the Annual Financial Statement are for the expenditure net of refunds
and recoveries, as will be reflected in the accounts.
The significance of the Consolidated Fund, the Contingency Fund and the Public Account as well as the
distinguishing features of Revenue and Capital Budget are given briefly below.

(i)
The existence of the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI) flows from Article 266 of the Constitution. All
revenues received by Government, loans raised by it, and also its receipts from recoveries of loans
granted by it form the Consolidated Fund. All expenditure of Government is incurred from the
Consolidated Fund of India and no amount can be drawn from the Consolidated Fund without
authorisation from Parliament.
(ii)
Article 267 of the Constitution authorises the Contingency Fund of India which is an imprest placed at
the disposal of the President of India to facilitate Government to meet urgent unforeseen expenditure
pending authorization from Parliament. Parliamentary approval for such unforeseen expenditure is
obtained, post-facto, and an equivalent amount is drawn from the Consolidated Fund to recoup the
Contingency Fund. The corpus of the Contingency Fund as authorized by Parliament presently stands
at ` 500 crore.
(iii) Moneys held by Government in Trust as in the case of Provident Funds, Small Savings collections,
income of Government set apart for expenditure on specific objects like road development, primary
education, Reserve/Special Funds etc. are kept in the Public Account. Public Account funds do not
belong to Government and have to be finally paid back to the persons and authorities who deposited
them. Parliamentary authorisation for such payments is, therefore, not required, except where amounts
are withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund with the approval of Parliament and kept in the Public
Account for expenditure on specific objects, in which case, the actual expenditure on the specific
object is again submitted for vote of Parliament for drawal from the Public Account for incurring
expenditure on the specific object.
(iv) Revenue Budget consists of the revenue receipts of Government (tax revenues and other revenues)
and the expenditure met from these revenues. Tax revenues comprise proceeds of taxes and other
duties levied by the Union. The estimates of revenue receipts shown in the Annual Financial Statement
take into account the effect of various taxation proposals made in the Finance Bill. Other receipts of
Government mainly consist of interest and dividend on investments made by Government, fees, and
other receipts for services rendered by Government. Revenue expenditure is for the normal running
of Government departments and various services, interest payments on debt, subsidies, etc. Broadly,
the expenditure which does not result in creation of assets for Government of India is treated as
revenue expenditure. All grants given to State Governments/Union Territories and other parties are
also treated as revenue expenditure even though some of the grants may be used for creation of
assets.
(v)
Capital Budget consists capital receipts and capital payments. The capital receipts are loans raised
by Government from public, called market loans, borrowings by Government from Reserve Bank and
other parties through sale of Treasury Bills, loans received from foreign Governments and bodies,
disinvestment receipts and recoveries of loans from State and Union Territory Governments and
other parties. Capital payments consist of capital expenditure on acquisition of assets like land, buildings,
machinery, equipment, as also investments in shares, etc., and loans and advances granted by Central
Government to State and Union Territory Governments, Government companies, Corporations and
other parties.
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(vi) Accounting Classification

The estimates of receipts and disbursements in the Annual Financial Statement and of expenditure
in the Demands for Grants are shown according to the accounting classification prescribed under
Article 150 of the Constitution, which enables Parliament and the public to make a meaningful
analysis of allocation of resources and purposes of Government expenditure.

The Annual Financial Statement shows separately, certain disbursements as charged on the
Consolidated Fund of India, where the Constitution mandates such items of expenditure, like
emoluments of the President, salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman
of the Rajya Sabha and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha, salaries, allowances
and pensions of Judges of the Supreme Court, Comptroller and Auditor-General of India and the
Central Vigilance Commission, interest on and repayment of loans raised by Government and
payments made to satisfy decrees of courts etc. These items of expenditure are charged on the
Consolidated Fund of India and are not required to be voted by the Lok Sabha.
3. (B) Demands for Grants
(i)
Article 113 of the Constitution mandates that the estimates of expenditure from the Consolidated
Fund of India included in the Annual Financial Statement and required to be voted by the Lok Sabha
are submitted in the form of Demands for Grants. The Demands for Grants are presented to the Lok
Sabha along with the Annual Financial Statement. Generally, one Demand for Grant is presented in
respect of each Ministry or Department. However, more than one Demand may be presented for a
Ministry or Department depending on the nature of expenditure. In regard to Union Territories without
Legislature, a separate Demand is presented for each of the Union Territories. In budget 2012-13
there are 106 Demands for Grants. Each Demand first gives the totals of ‘voted’ and ‘charged’
expenditure as also the ‘revenue’ and ‘capital’ expenditure included in the Demand separately, and
also the grand total of the amount of expenditure for which the Demand is presented. This is followed
by the estimates of expenditure under different major heads of account. The breakup of the expenditure
under each major head between ‘Plan’ and ‘Non-Plan’ is also given. The amounts of recoveries taken
in reduction of expenditure in the accounts are also shown. A summary of Demands for Grants is
given at the beginning of this document, while details of ‘New Service’ or ‘New Instrument of Service’
such as, formation of a new company, undertaking or a new scheme, etc., if any, are indicated at the
end of the document.
(ii)
Each Demand normally includes the total provisions required for a service, that is, provisions on
account of revenue expenditure, capital expenditure, grants to State and Union Territory Governments
and also loans and advances relating to the service. Where the provision for a service is entirely for
expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, for example, interest payments (Demand for
Grant No. 34), a separate Appropriation, as distinct from a Demand, is presented for that expenditure
and it is not required to be voted by Lok Sabha. Where, however, expenditure on a service includes
both ‘voted’ and ‘charged’ items of expenditure, the latter are also included in the Demand presented
for that service but the ‘voted’ and ‘charged’ provisions are shown separately in that Demand.
3. (C) Appropriation Bill
Under Article 114(3) of the Constitution, no amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund without
the enactment of such a law by Parliament. After the Demands for Grants are voted by the Lok Sabha,
Parliament’s approval to the withdrawal from the Consolidated Fund of the amounts so voted and of the
amount required to meet the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund is sought through the Appropriation
Bill.

The whole process beginning with the presentation of the Budget and ending with discussions and voting
on the Demands for Grants requires sufficiently long time. The Lok Sabha is, therefore, empowered by the
Constitution to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of the financial
year pending completion of procedure for the voting of the Demands. The purpose of the ‘Vote on Account’ is
to keep Government functioning, pending voting of ‘final supply’. The Vote on Account is obtained from
Parliament through an Appropriation (Vote on Account) Bill.

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3. (D) Finance Bill
At the time of presentation of the Annual Financial Statement before Parliament, a Finance Bill is also
presented in fulfillment of the requirement of Article 110 (1)(a) of the Constitution, detailing the imposition,
abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of taxes proposed in the Budget. A Finance Bill is a Money Bill as
defined in Article 110 of the Constitution. It is accompanied by a Memorandum explaining the provisions
included in it.

3. (E) Memorandum Explaining the Provisions in the Finance Bill
To facilitate understanding of the taxation proposals contained in the Finance Bill, the provisions and their
implications are explained in the document titled Memorandum Explaining the Provisions of the Finance Bill.

3. (F) Macro-economic Framework Statement
The Macro-economic Framework Statement, presented to Parliament under Section 3(5) of the Fiscal
Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 and the rules made thereunder contains an assessment of
the growth prospects of the economy with specific underlying assumptions. It contains assessment regarding
the GDP growth rate, fiscal balance of the Central Government and the external sector balance of the economy.

3. (G) Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement
The Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement, presented to Parliament under Section 3(4) of the Fiscal Responsibility
and Budget Management Act, 2003, outlines the strategic priorities of Government in the fiscal area for the
ensuing financial year relating to taxation, expenditure, lending and investments, administered pricing,
borrowings and guarantees. The Statement explains how the current policies are in conformity with sound
fiscal management principles and gives the rationale for any major deviation in key fiscal measures.

3. (H) Medium-term Fiscal Policy Statement
The Medium-term Fiscal Policy Statement, presented to Parliament under Section 3(2) of the Fiscal
Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003, sets out three-year rolling targets for four specific fiscal
indicators in relation to GDP at market prices namely (i) Revenue Deficit, (ii) Fiscal Deficit, (iii) Tax to GDP
ratio and (iv) Total outstanding Debt at the end of the year. The Statement includes the underlying assumptions,
an assessment of sustainability relating to balance between revenue receipts and revenue expenditure and
the use of capital receipts including market borrowings for generation of productive assets.

3.2 To facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the major features of the Budget, certain other
explanatory documents are presented. These are briefly summarized below.
3. (I) Expenditure Budget Volume-1
(i)
This document deals with revenue and capital disbursements of various Ministries/Departments and
gives the estimates in respect of each under ‘Plan’ and ‘Non-Plan’. It also gives analysis of various
types of expenditure and broad reasons for the variations in estimates.
(ii)
Under the present accounting and budgetary procedures, certain classes of receipts, like payments
made by one department to another and receipts of capital projects or schemes, are taken in reduction
of the expenditure of the receiving department. While the estimates of expenditure included in the
Demands for Grants are for the gross amounts, the estimates of expenditure included in the Annual
Financial Statement are for the net expenditure, after taking into account the recoveries. The document,
Expenditure Budget, makes certain other refinements like netting expenditure of related receipts so
that inflation of receipts and expenditure figures is avoided and there can be better appreciation of
the magnitudes of various expenditure. Contributions to International bodies and estimated strength
of establishment of various Government Departments and provision therefor are shown in separate
annexes. A statement each, showing (i) Plan grants and loans released by Ministries/Departments
directly to State and district level autonomous bodies, under various Central and Centrally Sponsored
Plan schemes, (ii) Gender Budgeting and (iii) Schemes for Development of Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes including Scheduled Caste Sub Plan (SCSP) and Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) allocations
and (iv) Schemes for welfare of children are also included in this document.
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(iii)
Plan Outlay
Plan expenditure forms a sizeable proportion of the total expenditure of the Central Government. The
Demands for Grants of the various Ministries show the Plan expenditure under each head separately
from the Non-Plan expenditure. The Expenditure Budget Vol. 1 also gives the total Plan provisions for
each of the Ministries arranged under the various heads of development and highlights the budget
provisions for the more important Plan programmes and schemes. Statements showing Externally
Aided projects under State and Central Plan are also included in the document. A description of
important schemes included in the Plan along with the objectives, targets and achievements is given
in the Outcome Budget of the respective Ministry. Variations in the estimates of Plan expenditure are
also explained.

(iv) Public Sector Enterprises
A large part of the Plan expenditure incurred by the Central Government is through public sector
enterprises. Budgetary support for financing outlays of these enterprises is provided by Government
either through investment in share capital or through loans. Expenditure Budget Vol. 1 shows the
estimates of capital and loan disbursements to public sector enterprises in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013
for Plan and Non-Plan purposes and also the extra budgetary resources available for financing their
Plans. A detailed report on the working of public sector enterprises is given in the document titled
‘Public Enterprises Survey’ brought out separately by the Department of Public Enterprises. A report
on the working of the enterprises under the control of various administrative Ministries is also given in
the Annual Reports of the various Ministries circulated to Members of Parliament separately. The
annual reports along with the audited accounts of each of the Government companies are also
separately laid before Parliament. Besides, the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General of
India on the working of various public sector enterprises are also laid before Parliament.

(v)
Commercial Departments
Railways is the principal departmentally-run commercial undertaking of Government. The Budget of
the Ministry of Railways and the Demands for Grants relating to Railway expenditure are presented to
Parliament separately. The total receipts and expenditure of the Railways are, however, incorporated
in the Annual Financial Statement of the Government of India. To portray the actual working and not
inflate either receipts or expenditure, the expenditure as reflected in the Receipts Budget & Expenditure
Budget Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 has been taken net of receipts of the departmental commercial undertakings.

(vi) The receipts and expenditure of the Defence Demands shown in the Annual Financial Statement, are
explained in greater detail in the document Defence Services Estimates presented along with the
Detailed Demands for Grants of the Ministry of Defence.
(vii) The details of grants given to bodies other than State and Union Territory Governments are given in
the statements of Grants-in-aid paid to non-Government bodies appended to Detailed Demands for
Grants of the various Ministries. Annexure 5 to Expenditure Budget Vol.1 shows details of grants-inaid
exceeding ` 5 lakhs (recurring) or ` 10 lakhs (non-recurring) to private institutions, organizations
and individuals sanctioned during the year 2010-11.
3. (J) Expenditure Budget Volume-2
The provisions made for a scheme or a programme may spread over a number of Major Heads in the
Revenue and Capital sections in a Demand for Grants. In the Expenditure Budget Vol. 2, the estimates made
for a scheme/programme are brought together and shown on a net basis at one place, by Major Heads. To
understand the objectives underlying the expenditure proposed for various schemes and programmes in the
Demands for Grants, suitable explanatory notes are included in this volume in which, wherever necessary,
brief reasons for variations between the Budget estimates and Revised estimates for the current year and
requirements for the ensuing Budget year are also given.

3. (K) Receipts Budget
Estimates of receipts included in the Annual Financial Statement are further analysed in the document
“Receipts Budget”. The document provides details of tax and non-tax revenue receipts and capital receipts
and explains the estimates. The document also provides the arrears of tax revenues and non-tax revenues, as

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mandated under the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Rules, 2004. Trend of receipts and
expenditure along with deficit indicators, statement pertaining to National Small Savings Fund (NSSF), statement
of revenues foregone, statement of liabilities, statement of guarantees given by the government, statements of
assets and details of external assistance are also included in Receipts Budget.

3. (L) Budget at a Glance
(i)
This document shows in brief, receipts and disbursements along with broad details of tax revenues
and other receipts. This document also exhibits broad break-up of expenditure - Plan and Non-Plan,
allocation of Plan outlays by sectors as well as by Ministries/Departments and details of resources
transferred by the Central Government to State and Union Territory Governments. This document
also shows the revenue deficit, the gross primary deficit and the gross fiscal deficit of the Central
Government. The excess of Government’s revenue expenditure over revenue receipts constitutes
revenue deficit of Government. The difference between the total expenditure of Government by way
of revenue, capital and loans net of repayments on the one hand and revenue receipts of Government
and capital receipts which are not in the nature of borrowing but which finally accrue to Government
on the other, constitutes gross fiscal deficit. Gross primary deficit is measured by gross fiscal deficit
reduced by gross interest payments. In the Budget documents ‘gross fiscal deficit’ and ‘gross primary
deficit’ have been referred to in abbreviated form ‘fiscal deficit’ and ‘primary deficit’, respectively. This
document also shows liabilities of the Government on account of securities (bonds) issued in lieu of
oil and fertilizer subsidies.
(ii)
The document also includes a statement indicating the quantum and nature (share in Central Taxes,
grants/loan) of the total Resources transferred to States and Union Territory Governments. Details of
these transfers by way of share of taxes, grants-in-aid and loans are given in Expenditure Budget
Volume 1. Bulk of grants and loans are disbursed by the Ministry of Finance and are included in the
Demand ‘Transfers to State and Union Territory Governments’. The grants and loans released to
States and Union Territories by other Ministries/Departments are provided for in their respective
Demands.
3. (M) Highlights of Budget
This document explains the key features of the Budget 2012-2013, inter alia, indicating the prominent
achievements in various sectors of the economy. It also explains, in brief, the budget proposals for allocation
of funds to be made in important areas. The summary of tax proposals is also reflected in the document.

3. (N) Detailed Demands for Grants
The Detailed Demands for Grants are laid on the table of the Lok Sabha sometime after the presentation
of the Budget, but before the discussion on Demands for Grants commences. Detailed Demands for Grants
further elaborate the provisions included in the Demands for Grants as also actual expenditure during the
previous year. A break-up of the estimates relating to each programme/organisation, wherever the amount
involved is not less than `10 lakhs, is given under a number of object heads which indicate the categories and
nature of expenditure incurred on that programme, like salaries, wages, travel expenses, machinery and
equipment, grants-in-aid, etc. At the end of these Detailed Demands are shown the details of recoveries taken
in reduction of expenditure in the accounts.

3. (O) Outcome Budget
(i)
With effect from Financial Year 2007-08, the Performance Budget and the Outcome Budget hitherto
presented to Parliament separately by Ministries/Departments, are merged and presented as a single
document titled “Outcome Budget” by each Ministry/Department in respect of all Demands/
Appropriations controlled by them, except those exempted from this requirement. Outcome Budget
broadly indicates physical dimensions of the financial budget of a Ministry/Department, indicating
actual physical performance in the preceding year (2010-2011), performance in the first nine months
(up to December) of the current year (2011-2012) and the targeted performance during the ensuing
year (2012-2013).
(ii)
Outcome Budget contains a brief introductory note on the organization and function of the Ministry/
Department, list of major programmes/schemes implemented by the Ministry/Department, its mandate,
goal and policy framework, budget estimates, scheme-wise analysis of physical performance and
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linkage between financial outlays and outcome, review covering overall trends in expenditure vis-avis
budget estimates in recent years, review of performance of statutory and autonomous bodies
under the administrative control of the Ministry/Department, reform measures, targets and achievements
and plan for future refinements.

(iii)
As far as feasible, coverage of women and SC/ST beneficiaries under various developmental schemes
and schemes for the benefit of North Eastern Region are also separately indicated.
3. (P) Annual Reports
A descriptive account of the activities of each Ministry/Department during the year 2011-2012 is given in
the document Annual Report which is brought out separately by each Ministry/Department and circulated to
Members of Parliament at the time of discussion on the Demands for Grants.

3. (Q) Economic Survey
The Economic Survey brings out the economic trends in the country which facilitates a better appreciation
of the mobilisation of resources and their allocation in the Budget. The Survey analyses the trends in agricultural
and industrial production, infrastructure, employment, money supply, prices, imports, exports, foreign exchange
reserves and other relevant economic factors which have a bearing on the Budget, and is presented to the
Parliament ahead of the Budget for the ensuing year.

The Budget of the Central Government is not merely a statement of receipts and expenditure. Since
Independence, with the launching of Five Year Plans, it has also become a significant statement of government
policy. The Budget reflects and shapes, and is, in turn, shaped by the country's economy. For a better
appreciation of the impact of government receipts and expenditure on the other sectors of the economy, it is
necessary to group them in terms of economic magnitudes, for example, how much is set aside for capital
formation, how much is spent directly by the Government and how much is transferred by Government to
other sectors of the economy by way of grants, loans, etc. This analysis is contained in the Economic and
Functional Classification of the Central Government Budget which is brought out by the Ministry of Finance
separately.

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