Tuesday, December 1, 2015

The Two Europe's East and West since 1945

The states of western Europe
-          Politically weak.
-          Governments were weak because the new constitution gave the president very little power.
-          5 major parties formed coalitions governments which were constantly changing;
-          This caused number of disasters.
o   French defeat in Indo-China(1954)
o   Failure in suez( 1956)
o   Rebellion in Algeria.
-          General de Gaulle came out   of retirement to lead the country; he introduced a new constitution giving the president   more power.
-          He gave Algeria independence.
-          Governments started being stable;
-          Dominant issues in 1990’s- recession, unemployment, doubts about france role in the European community, uneasiness about the reunified Germany.
the German Federal Republic( west Germany):-
-          Set up in 1949
-          Enjoyed a remarkable recovery- an economic miracle under the conservative government of chancellor Adenauer
-           Marshall plan- by a high rate of investment in new plant and equipment, Ploughing back of profits into industry rather than distributing them as higher dividends or higher wages .
-          Industrial recovery was completed by 1960 – west Germany was producing 50% more steel than the united germany in 1938.
-          New constitution encouraged two party system to enable better chance of strong government.
o   Christian Democrats
o   Social democrats.
-          After the prosperous 1970’s , west Germany began to suffer increasingly from the world recession.
-          By 1982, unemployment had shot up to 2 million.
-          Kohl become the first president to reunified Germany in 1990.
-          Reunification brought enormous problems  for Germany- the cost of modernizing the east and bringing its economy up to western standards placed a big stain on the country.
-          Billions of Deutschemarks were poured in and the process of privatizing state industries was begun.
-          By 1996, with welfare costs running high and unemployment at almost 10%, there were doubts as to whether even Germany could meet the requirements of a single European currency ( budget deficit of less than 3% of GDP).
-          New republic of Italy began with a period of prosperity and stable government under de Gasperi;
-          But after that, there was a series of weak coalition governments, which failed to solve the problems of inflation and unemployment.
-          Successful politician was the socialist Bettino Craxi( 1983-87) ; inflation and unemployment were reduced.
-          Basic problems during 1990’s were:
o   There was a north- south divide:- north- modern, competitive industry, relatively prosperous; south – backward, lower standard of living and higher unemployment.
o   The mafia was still a powerful force.
o   Politics seemed to be riddled with corruption.
o   There was a huge government debt and a weak currency.
The growth of Unity in western Europe:-
a)      Reasons for wanting more unity:-
-          Western Europe there were people who wanted more unity.
-          Some simply wanted the nations to co- operate more closely; other wanted to go the whole hog and have a federal system of government like USA.
-          The reasoning behind this thinking was.
o   The best way for Europe to recover from the ravages of war  by pooling their resources ;
o   Individual states were too small and economically weak to be economically and militarily viable separately in a world now dominated by the super –powers, the USA and USSR.
o   The less chance would be of war breaking
o   Enable western Europe more effectively to resist the spread of communism from the USSR;
o   Germans were especially keen on the idea because they thought it would help them to gain acceptance as a responsible nation more quickly than after the first world war.
-          Winston Churchill was on of the strongest advocates of a united Europe.
-          He suggested that France and West Germany should take the lead in setting up a kind of United States of Europe.
b)      First steps in co-operation:-
1)      The Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC):-
a.       Setup officially in 1948; first initiative towards economic unity.
b.      Took the lead in organizing 16 European nations to draw up a plan for the best use off American Marshall Aid. This was known as the European recovery Programme (ERP).
c.       Its first function, successfully achieved over the next four years, was to apportion American aid among its members, after which it went on, again with great success, to encourage trade among its members by reducing restrictions; it was helped by UN’s GATT and European Payments Union (EPU);
d.      When US and Canada joined in 1961 it became the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD). Later Australia and Japan joined.
2)      The North Atlantic Treaty Organization( NATO ):
a.       Established in 1949; as a mutual defence in case of an attack on one of the member states.
b.      It also included the USA and Canada.
c.       The Korean war caused the USA to press successfully for the integration of NATO forces under a centralized command : A Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE).
d.      The forces available for the defence of western Europe had been increased fourfold.
e.      But problems soon arose:
                                                                          i.      French were not happy about the dominant American a=role;
                                                                        ii.      France withdrew from NATO; so that French forces and French nuclear policy would not be controlled by a foreigner.
                                                                      iii.      Now NATO was weak compared with Warsaw pact.
3)      The council of Europe:
a.       Setup in 1949
b.      First  attempt at some sort of political unity.
c.       By 1971 all states of western Europe, turkey, malta and Cyprus, joined.
d.      Based a Strasbourg, it consisted of the Foreign Ministers of the member states, and an assembly of representatives chosen by the parliaments of the states.
e.      Had no powers, since, several states including britian , refused to join any organization which threatened their own sovereignty.
f.        It could debate pressing issues and make recommendations , and it achieved useful work sponsoring human rights agreements but disappointment to the federalist.
The early days of the European Community
-          Known as European Economic Community (EEC) or the Common Market.
-          Officially setup under the Treaty of Rome(1957).
-          Members- France, west Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.
The EEC:-
-          The six countries would gradually remove all customs duties and quotas so that there would be free competition and a common market.
-          Tariffs would be kept against non- members, but even these were reduced.
-          With in five years it was the world’s biggest exporter and biggest buyer of raw materials and was second only to the USA in steel production. However, Britain had decided not to join.
       The machinery of the European community:-
-          European commission-
o   Ran the day to day work of the community
o   Based in Brussels
o   Took important policy decisions.
o   It had strong powers so that it would be able to stand up against possible criticism and opposition from the governments of the members. But its decisions had to be approved by the council of ministers consisted of government representatives from each of the member states.
o   Their job was to exchange information about their government’s economic policies and coordinate them and keep them running on similar lines.
-          European parliament
o   Consists of representatives chosen by the parliaments of the member states. They could discuss issues and make recommendations, but no control over the commission or the council.
o   They were to be directly elected by the people of the community.
-          European court of justice
o   Deal with any problems which might arise out of the interpretation an operation of the Treaty of Rome.
o   People could appeal if their government was thought to be infringing the rules of the community.
-          Also associated with the EEC was EURATOM, and organization in which the six nations pooled their efforts towards the development of atomic energy.
-          1967, the EEC, the ECSC and EURATOM formally merged and , dropping the word economic, became simply the European Community (EC).
Why did the British refuse to join and change their minds later?
Although Churchill had been one of the strongest supporters of the idea of a unified Europe, when he became PM again in1951, he seemed to have lost any enthusiasm for british membership.
a)      Reasons for Britain’s refusal to join:
a.       The European commission in Brussels would be able to make vital decisions affecting Britain’s internal economic affairs.
b.      There was a problem about the British Commonwealth; the commonwealth relations would be ruined if Britain was no longer able to give preference to commonwealth goods such as New Zealand lamb and butter- more promising market than the EEC.
c.       If the british became involved too deeply in economic integration with Europe, it might damage their special relationship with the americans.
d.      Economic unity would lead to the political unity of Europe- British sovereignty should be preserved.
-          European states outside the EEC were worried about being excluded from selling their goods to EEC members because of the high duties on imports from outside the community.
-          Consequently in 1959britain took the lead in organizing a rival group, the European free Trade Association( EFTA). Britain , Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria and Portugal agreed gradually to abolish tariffs between themselves.
-          There is no question of common economic policies and no commission to interfere with the internal affairs of the states.
b)      Why did the British change their minds?
-          1961, conservative PM Harold Macmillan announced that Britain wished to join the EEC.
-          Reasons
o   It was obvious that the EEC was an outstanding success- without Britain; French production had risen by 75% while German production had increased by Almost 90%.
o   Britain’s economy was much less successful; production rise by only 30%; in 1960, there was a balance of payments deficit of some 270 million pounds.
o   Although EFTA had succeeded in increasing trade among its members, it was nothing like as successful as the EEC.
o   The commonwealth, in spite of its huge population, had nothing like the same purchasing power as the EEC.
o   There were signs that the EEC was prepared to make special arrangements to allow commonwealth countries and some other former European colonies to became associate members. EFTA partners might be able to join as well.
o   Britain was in competition from other EEC members would stimulate British industry to greater effort and efficiency.
c)       Why did the French oppose British entry into the EEC?
a.       De Gaulle claimed that Britain had too many economic problems and would only would only weaken the EEC; any concession being made for the commonwealth would be a drain on Europe’s resources.
b.      The british believed that de Gaulle’s real motive was his desire to continue dominating the Community.
c.       De Gaulle was not happy about Britain’s American connection ; Britain membership would allow the USA to dominate European affair.
                                                              i.      He was probably annoyed that Britain, without consulting france, had just agreed to receive Polaris missiles from America.
                                                            ii.      He was certainly furious with president Kennedy for not having made the same offer to France.
                                                          iii.      He was determined to prove that France was a great power and had no need of American help.
                                                           iv.      It was this friction between France and the USA which eventually led de Gaulle to withdraw France from NATO(1966).
d.      Finally there was the problem of French agriculture: EEV protected its farmers with high tariffs so that prices were much higher than in Britain.
                                                              i.      Britain’s agriculture was highly efficient and subsidized to keep prices relatively low.
                                                            ii.      British entry would make the French smaller farmers be exposed to competition from Britain and perhaps from the commonwealth.
e.      Britain request for entry was again vetoed by France in 1967.
d)      Britain enters the Community(1973):-
a.       Britain, along with Eire and Denmark, was able to enter the EEC.
b.      Britain entry was made possible by two main factors.
                                                              i.      President de Gaulle had resigned in 1969 and his successor , Georges Pompidou, was more friendly toward Britain.
                                                            ii.      Britain’s Conservative PM , Edward Heath , was in a good position to press Britain’s claims strongly.

The European community since Britain entry
a)      The Lome convention:-
o   From the beginning EC was criticized for being self centered and inward looking and have no interest in helping the world’s poorer nations.
o   This agreement came to do something to offset criticism.
o   It allowed goods produced in over forty countries in Africa and the Caribbean and former European colonies, to be brought into the EEC free of duties
o   It also promise economic aid,
o   Other poor third world countries were added to the list later.
b)      Direct elections to the European parliament(1979):-
o   One reason for introducing elections was to try to arouse more interest and bring ordinary people into closer contact with the affairs of the community.
o   410 euro-MPs were chosen.
o   Britain , France, Italy and west Germany were allowed 81 each; Britain has the lowest voter turnout.
o   Overall in the  new European parliament, the right wing and center parties had a comfortable majority over the left and continued .
c)       The introduction of the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM):-
o   This was introduced to link the currencies of the member states in order to limit the extent to which individual currencies could change in value against the currencies of other members.
o   It was hoped that linking the currencies would help to control inflation and lead eventually to a single currency for the whole of the EC.
o   Britain decided not to take the pound sterling into the ERM; she made the mistake of joining in 1990 when the exchange rate was relatively high.
d)      Community membership grows:-
o   Greece, Portugal and Spain arrival in1986 cause new problems;
o   They were among the poorer countries of Europe and their presence increased the influence within the community of the less industrialized nations.
o   There would be increased pressured from these countries for more action to help the less developed states and so improve the economic balance between rich and poor nations.
o   1995- Austria, Finland and Sweden joined.
e)      Britain and the EC budget:-
o   During the early days many british people were disappointed that Britain did not seen to be gaining any obvious benefit from the EC.
o   Her imports from the community increased far more than her exports; Britain was not producing enough goods for export at the right prices.
o   Britain was one of the least efficient nations in the EC, while Denmark and west Germany were top of the league.
o   A major crisis erupted in 1980 when Britain discovered that her budget contribution for that year was to be 1209 million pounds far much than others.
o   Britain protested that her contributions was ridiculously high, given the general state of her economy.
o   Actually the contributions were based on the non EC imports that a country receive; unfortunately Britain had the highest no EC imports.
o   Compromise was reached: Britain’s contribution was reduced to a total; of 1346 million over the next year.
f)       The 1986 changes:-
o   A move to completely free and common market by 1992.
o   More EC control over health, safety, protection of the environment and protection for consumers;
o   More encouragement for scientific research and technology;
o   More help for backward region;
o   Introduction of majority voting on many issues in the council of ministers rather than veto by which a single state can stop entire the process.
o   More powers for the European parliament so that measures could be passed with less delay.
o   This meant that domestic parliament of the member states were gradually losing some control over their own internal affairs.
o   Opposition on this by Britain and Denmark; they stirred up the old controversy about national sovereignty.
g)      Common agricultural policy:-
o   In order to help farmers and encourage them to stay in business, so that the community could continue to produce much of its own food.
o   It was decided to pay them subsidies which would keep prices at reasonable levels for the consumers.
o   Britain, the Netherlands and west Germany pressed for a limit to be placed on subsidies, nut the French government was reluctant to agree to this because it did not want to upset French farmers, who were doing very well out of the subsidies.
o   In 1984 maximum production quotas were introduced for the first time, but this did not solve the problem; by 1987 the stockpiling of produce had reached ludicrous proportions.
o   Efforts to get rid of the surplus included selling it off cheaply to the USSR, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh , distributing butter free of charge to the poor within the community and using it to make animal feed.
o   All this helped to cause a massive budget crisis in 1989:
o   The EC introduced a harsh programme of production curbs and a price freeze to put a general squeeze on Europe’s farmers.
h)      Greater integration: the Maastricht treaty:-
And agreement was drawn up for a new stage in the process of creating an even close union among the peoples of Europe. Some of the points agreed were:
o   More powers for the European parliament;
o   Greater economic and monetary union- common currecy.
o   A common foreign and security policy;
o   A detailed timetable was drawn up of the stages by which all this would be achieved.
o   Britain objected very strongly to the ideas of a federal Europe and monetary union, and whole section of the treaty known as the social chapter.
§  Britain argued that these would increase production costs and therefore cause unemployment .
§  It was later dropped.
o   French, dutch and Belgian governments supported treaty strongly because Germany can be contained and controlled within the community.
o   By the mid 1990s after almost forty years of existence, the European community had been a great success economically and had fostered good relations between the member states, but there were vital issues to be faced:
§  First, How much closer could economic and political co-operation become? The goal of European Monetary Union (EMU) and a single currency caused problems for all the member states.
§  The requirement for joining the single currency was that a country’s budget deficit must be less than 3% of its GDP.
§  1992 crisis caused both Britain and Italy to withdraw from the ERM.
§  By the end of 1996, governments were reducing spending and cutting welfare benefits in the struggle the keep their deficits low, and this provoked criticism and ill-feeling.
§  Second, what should the Union’s attitude to the states of eastern Europe be? There was some talk that they might be able to join the Union soon after the year 2000.
§  1994, Poland and Hungary formally applied fro membership.
Communist unity in eastern Europe:
the main difference between eastern unity and western unity was that the countries of east were forced into it by the USSR, Whereas the members of the EC joined voluntarily.
a)      Organization of the communist bloc:-
o   USSR wanted the same political , economical and educational systems in their satellites.
o   All had to carry out the bulk of their trade with Russia and their foreign policies and armed forces were controlled from Moscow.
a.       The Molotov plan:-
                                                              i.      Idea of economically united Europe.
                                                            ii.      Response to the American offer of Marshall aid.
                                                          iii.      A set of trade agreements between the USSR and its satellites .
                                                           iv.      Designed to boost the traded of eastern Europe.
b.      The Communist Information Bureau:
                                                              i.      All communist states had to become members and its aim was political;
                                                            ii.      To make sure that all the governments followed the same line as the government of the USSR.
                                                          iii.      To be communist was not enough; it had to be Russian style .
c.       The council for Mutual Economic Assistance ( COMENCON )
                                                              i.      To help plan the economies of the individual states.
                                                            ii.      All industry was nationalized ; agriculture was collectivized;
                                                          iii.      Nikita Khrushchev tried to use COMECON to organize the communist bloc into a single integrated economy;
                                                           iv.      He wanted east Germany and Czechoslovakia to develop as the main industrial areas, and Hungary and Romania to concentrate on agriculture; after severe protests from the states, he had to change his plans.
                                                             v.      The eastern bloc enjoyed some success economically , with steadily increasing production, but as not so as the west.
                                                           vi.      Albania, Most backward country in the country in Europe.
                                                         vii.      In the 1980s the economies of the Eastern bloc states experienced difficulties , with shortages, inflation and a fall in the standard of living.
                                                       viii.      Even so the communist bloc had a good record in social services.
d.      The Warsaw pact (1955):-
                                                              i.      Signed by all eastern European countries except yugoslavia.
                                                            ii.      They promised to defend each other against any attack from outside;
                                                          iii.      The armies of the member states came under overall Russian control form Moscow.
                                                           iv.      Ironically, Warsaw pact troops took part in joint action against one of their own members- Czechoslovakia.
b)      Tensions in the eastern bloc:-
Although there were problems in EC like the common agricultural policy and the sovereignty of the individual states, these were not as serious as the tensions which occurred between the USSR and some of her satellite states.
In the early lines of Cominform, Moscow felt that it had to clamp sown of any leader or movement which seemed to threaten the solidarity of the communist bloc.
a.       Yugoslavia was the first state to stand up against Moscow:-
                                                              i.      Martial Tito, had the popularity among the people, was legally elected as leader of the new Yugoslav republic and so he did not owe his position to the Russians.
                                                            ii.      He was determined to follow his own brand of communism, not stalin’s.
                                                          iii.      He was against over centralization.
                                                           iv.      He wanted to be free to trade with the west as well as with the USSR.
                                                             v.      Stalin therefore expelled Yugoslavia from the Cominform and cut off economic aid, expecting that the country would soon be ruined economically and that Tito would be forced to resign.
                                                           vi.      Tito was much too popular to be toppled by outside pressures,and so stalin decided it would be too risky to invade Yugoslavia.
                                                         vii.      Tito continued to  operate his own way of communism which included full contact and trade with the west and acceptance of aid from the international monetary Fund ( IMF ).
                                                       viii.      The Yugoslavs began to reverse the process of centralization; industries were denationalized, and instead of being state- owned, they became public property, managed by workers representatives through councils and assemblies.
                                                           ix.      The same applied in agriculture ; the communes were most important unit in the state with 5000, 100000.
                                                             x.      Elected commune assembly organized matters to do with the economy, education, health, culture and welfare.
                                                           xi.      Weaknesses:
1.       Workers unwillingness to sack colleagues;
2.       A tendency to pay themselves too much.
                                                         xii.      This led to over employment and high costs and prices. Nevertheless with its capitalist elements this was an alternative Marxist system which many developing African states, especially Tanzania, found attractive.
                                                       xiii.      Khrushchev decided to improve relations with Tito; apologized for stalin’s actions.
                                                       xiv.      Breach was fully healed the following year when Khrushchev gave his formal approval to Tito’s successful brand of communism.

b.      Stalin acts against other leaders:-
As rift with Yugoslavia widened, Stalin arranged for the arrest of any communist leaders in the other states who attempted to follow independent policies ( hungary , Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Albania.
c.       Khrushchev: ‘different roads to socialism’
                                                              i.      After stalin’s death, 1953, there were signs that the satellite states might be given more freedom.
                                                            ii.      Khrushchev criticized many of stalin’s policies and seemed prepared to concede that there were different roads to socialism.
                                                          iii.      He soon healed the rift with Yugoslavia and abolished cominform.
                                                           iv.      However, it was not long before events in Poland and hungary showed that there were sharp limits.
Crisis in Poland:
                                                                          i.      General strike and a massive anti-government and anti – soviet demonstrations; banners demanded ‘ bread and freedom and the workers were protesting against poor living standards, wage reductions and high taxes.
                                                                        ii.      Russian tanks surrounded warsaw; in the end the Russians decided to compromise : Gomulka , who had earlier been imprisoned on stalin’s orders, was allowed to be reappointed as first secretary of the communist party.
                                                                      iii.      It was accepted that the polish communism.
                                                                       iv.      They introduced the collectivization of agriculture only very slowly, and probably only about 10 % . Poland also traded with countries outside the communist block.
The Hungarian revolution ( 1956):-
·         Different from the one in Poland.
·         Resentment on pro-stalin leader, Rakosi  steadily built up against the government until it exploded in a full scale rising
·         Causes:-
o   Repressive regime- thousands of people were executed and imprisoned.
o   Living standards of ordinary people were getting worse
o   Intense anti- Russian feeling;
o   Khrushchev’s ‘different roads to socialism ‘ theory and Gomulka’s return to  power in Poland encouraged the Hungarians to resist their government.
·         Rakosi was overthrown, Nagy became prime minister; he went too far and announced plans for a government including members of other political parties and talked of withdrawing hungary from the warsaw pact.
·         USSR feared that it would encourage people in other eastern bloc states to do the same.
·         Russian tanks moved in and surrounded Budapest; people resisted bravely and fighting resulted in death of 20000 people.
·         Nagy was executed ; 2 lakh people fled the country and went to the west.
The crisis in Czechoslovakia (1968):-
-          The Russians did not interfere so directly anywhere until 1968 when they felt that the Czechs were straying too far from the accepted communist line.
-          In the mid 1960’s government was run by the pro- Moscow communist, Antonin Novotny; opposition gradually escalated because:
o   Czechs were industrially and culturally the most advanced of the eastern bloc people, and they objected to the over centralized Russian control of their economy.
o   They resented all the restrictions on personal liberty; news papers, books and magazines were heavily censored, no freedom of speech; anybody who criticized the government could be arrested;
o   When people tried to hold the protests, police used very violent and brutal.
-          1968, novotny was forced to resign and Alexander Dubcek became first secretary of communist party; he had a completely new programme.
o   No longer dictate policy;
o   Industry would be de- centralized; factories would be run by works
o   Farms become independent co-operatives.
o   Wider powers for trades unions.
o   More trade with the west and freedom to travel abroad; the frontier with west Germany immediately thrown open;
o   Freedom of speech and freedom for the press; criticism of the government was encouraged; he believed that the government should earn the right to be in power by responding to people’s wishes. He called I ‘socialism with a human face’.
o   Careful to assure the Russians that he would stay in the warsaw pact and remained a reliable ally.
-          Russians became worried about it ; a massive invasion of Czechoslovakia took place by eastern bloc member’s troops;
-          Czech government decided to resist passively to avoid blood shed; at the end the government was forced to abandon its new programme.
-          Dubcek was replaced by Gustav Husak.
-          Russians intervened because the allowing of freedom of speech and freedom for the press that lead to similar demand throughout the soviet bloc.
-          Her came the Brezhnev doctrine, who ordered the invasion- this said that intervention in the internal affairs of any communist country was justified if socialism was threatened.
e)      The communist bloc moves towards collapse:-
-          Resentment against Moscow’s hard line started simmering in poland and Czechoslovakia.
o   Poland-
§  New government in1980 was forced to allow ( because – industrial unrest, food shortages and strikes) the formation of an independent trade union movement known as Solidarity,
§  The Russians moved troops but no invasion took place; perhaps they are busy with Afghanistan invasion.
o   Helsinki agreement(1975)-
§  Caused problems in the communist bloc.
§  Signed by every nation in Europe except Albania and Andorra.
§  Promised to work for increased co-operation in economic affairs and peacekeeping and to protect human rights.
§  USSR and other communist states were accusing their government of failing to allow basic human rights.
o   Czechoslovakia- a human rights group calling itself Charter 77 was formed ; became more outspoken in its criticisms of the Husak government.
o   By this time all the communist states were suffering serious economic problems much worse than those in the EC.
Why and how did communism collapse in Eastern Europe?
-         1988 to 1991 communism in eastern Europe swept away. Poland was the first to reject communism followed by Hungary and East Germany and the rest.
-         By 1991, even Russia had ceased to be communist after 74 years.
-         Why did dramatic collapse take place?
1.Economic failure:
-          Communism did not produce the standard of living which should have been possible, given the vast resources available.
-          The economic systems were inefficient, over centralized and subject to too many restrictions; ex- all states were expected to do most of their trading within the communist bloc.
-          The communist record on health, education, housing, and a range of other social service has been atrocious.
-          Increasing contact with the west in the 1980s suggested that their living standards werer falling even further.
-          It showed that it must be their own leaders and the communist system which were the cause of all their problems.
2. Mikhail Gorbachev:  
-          Became leader in 1985
-          Recognized the failings of the system and he admitted that it was ‘ an absurd situation’ that the USSR, the world’s biggest producer of steel, fuel and energy, should be suffering shortages because of waste and inefficiency.
-          He hoped to save communism by revitalizing and modernizing it.
-          He introduced new policies of glasnost ( openness ) and perestroika (economic and social reform) .
-          Criticism of the system was encouraged in the drive for improvement, provided nobody criticized the communist party.
-          He also helped to overthrew the old fashioned, hard-line communist leaders in Czechoslovakia, east Germany , Romania, Bulgaria; his hope was that more progressive leaders would increase the chance of saving communism in Russia’s satellite states.
-          Unfortunately for Gorbachev, once the process of reform began, it proved impossible to control it.
-          The most dangerous time for any repressive regime is when it begins to try to reform itself by making concessions.
-          These are never enough to satisfy the critics, and in Russia, criticism inevitably turned against the communist party itself and demanded more.
-          Public opinion even turned against Gorbachev because many people felt he was not moving fast enough.
-          The same happened in the satellite states; the critics became more daring as they realized that Gorbachev would not send soviet troops in to fire on them.
3. Poland leads the way:
-          General Jaruzelski, became leader in 1981, suppressed the solidarity movement.
-          But all attempts to improve the economy failed.
-          In 1988, when Jaruzelski tried to economize by cutting government subsidies, protest strikes broke out because the changes sent food prices up; this time he decided not to risk using the force as there would be no backing from Moscow.
-          He realized that he needed opposition support to deal with the economic crisis. Talks opened between Communist government , and solidarity and other opposition groups.
-          By 1989, sensational changes in the constitution had been agreed:
o   solidarity was allowed to become a political party.
o   There were to be two houses of parliament, a lower house and a senate;
o   In the lower house, 65% of the seats had to be communist;
o   The senate was to be freely elected- no guaranteed communist seats.
o   The two houses voting together would elect a president, who would then choose a prime minister.
-          In the elections, a compromise deal was worked out when it came to forming a government:
o   Jaruzelski became president
o   Mazowiecki( solidarity) became PM, who was the first non communist leader in the eastern bloc.
o   After the collapse of communism in the other east European states, further changes in Poland removed the guaranteed communist seats.
o   Lech Walesa, the solidarity leader, was elected president.
o   The peaceful revolution in Poland was complete.
4. the peaceful revolution spreads to Hungary:-
-          The rest of Europe tried to follow the Poland.
-          Hungary, Kadar himself admitted in 1985 that living standards had fallen, poor management , poor organization , outdated machinery in state sector industry.
-          He announce new measures of decentralization.
-          Two large opposition parties became increasingly active.
-          They stood for the interests of farmers and peasants.
-          The Hungarian communist leadership, decided to go peacefully; free elections were held in 1990.
-          Communists suffered a crushing defeat; the election was won by the Democratic Forum, whose leader, Jozsef Antall, became Prime Minister.
5. Germany reunited:-
-          In east Germany, Erich Honecker wanted to keep communism in place.
-          However, honecker was soon overtaken by events:
o   Gorbachev, paid a visit to chancellor Kohl in Bonn, and promised to help bring an end to the divided Europe, in return for German economic aid, in effect he was secretly promising freedom for East Germany.
o   1989, thousands of East German began to escape to the west via Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, when Hungary opened its frontier with Austria.
o   Protestant church backed opposition party called New Forum which campaigned to bring an end to the repressive and atheistic communist regime.
o   Honecker was dropped and Egon Krenz made concessions, the Berlin wall was opened and free elections promised.
o   Chancellor Kohl staged an election tour, and the East German version of his party( CDU) won an overwhelming victory.
o   He was hoping for gradual moves towards reunification, every body in East Germany seemed to want immediate union.
o   USSR and USA agreed that reunification could take place; France and Britain were less about German reunification.
o   Germany was formally reunited at midnight in1990.
o   In elections for the whole of Germany the conservative CDU alliance, together with their liberal FDP supporters, won a comfortable majority over the socialist SPD.
o   Helmut Kohl became the first Chancellor of all Germany since the second world war.
6. Czechoslovakia:-
-          One of the most successful economies of Eastern Europe in early days; they traded extensively with the west and her industry and commerce remained buoyant throughout the 1970s.
-          Early 1980s the economy ran into trouble because they made little attempt to modernize industry.
-          Milos jakes, did not have a reputation as a reformer; here started the Velvet revolution.
-          Charter 77, organized further opposition conducted a public rally for the first time since 1968, a national strike was strike was declared.
-          This was enough to topple the communist regime; jakes resigned and Havel was elected president.
7. the rest of Eastern Europe:-
      a. Romania:-
·         Communist regime was the most brutal and repressive anywhere in the world.
·         revolution came in support of a popular priest who was being harassed by the securitate.
·         Army was ordered to open fire on crowd; but it refused to fire on innocent people.
·         Government had lost control. Leaders were arrested and tried by a military tribunal and shot.
·         Committee calling itself the National Salvation Front was formed and admitted that they were communists who wanted reform.
·         They won the elections for a new parliament 1990.
     b. Bulgaria:-
·         Communist leader Todor Zhivkov refused all reforms.
·         Progressive communists decided to get rid of him.
·         The politburo voted to remove him and in 1990 free elections were held.
·         Communists won a comfortable victory over the main opposition party.
·         Russians were not responsible for introduction of communism in Albania; they were admired by the stalin and copied his system faithfully.
·         Albania was still the poorest and most backward country in Europe.
·         Student demonstrations were breaking out against the government incapability,and statues of communist leaders were overturned.
·         Eventually free elections were allowed; 1992, first non-communist president, Sali berisla was elected.
  clearly discussed in the next topic.
8. After communism:-
-          Eastern Europe face broadly similar problems:
o   Change from command economy to a free economy.
o   Old fashioned industry should have been privatized and uncompetitive; so nobody wanted to buy shares in ti.
o   Price of consumer goods soared
o   Standard of living was even lower than under the final years of communism.
o   Little help was forthcoming from the west.
-          The east germans were the most fortunate, having wealth of the former west Germany to help them.
o   But many west germans resented to this ; even east germans also disappointed with west people who are capturing their jobs.
-          Poland – suffered with  poor progress in the first four years.
o   By 1994 there were clear signs of recovery.
-          Czechoslovakia- sloakia, the eastern half of the country, demanded the independence
o   A peaceful settlement was worked out and the country split into two- the Czech republic and Slovakia.
-          Predictably, the slowest economic progress was made in Romania, Bulgaria and Albania.
Civil war in Yugoslavia:-
-         Formed after the first world war.
-         It included people of many different nationalities and the state was organized on federal lines.
-         It consisted of six republics- Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Bosnia- Herzegovina and Macedonia and also two provinces- Vojvodina and Kosovo which were associate with Serbia.
-         Under the leadership of Tito nationalist feelings of the different peoples were strictly under control; people were encouraged to think of themselves primarily as Yugoslavs.
-         Tito left careful plans for the country to be ruled by a collective presidency after his death.
-         This would consist of one representative from each of the six republics and one from each of the two provinces; a different president of this council would be elected each year.
a.     Things begin to go wrong:-
Collective leadership worked well at first, but in the mid-1980s things began to go wrong.
                                                              i.      The economy was in trouble- with inflation ,unemployment;
                                                            ii.      There were differences between areas: ex- Slovenia was reasonably prosperous while parts of Serbia were poverty- sticken.
                                                          iii.      Slobodan Milosevic, became president of Serbia in 1988. Bears much of the responsibility for the tragedy which followed.
1.       He stirred up the Serbian nationalist feelings to increase his own popularity, using the situation in Kosovo.
2.       He claimed that the Serbian minority in Kosovo were being terrorized by the Albanian majority.
3.       He successfully convinced the voters that he was now a nationalist intended that Serbia should be the dominant republic; first free elections held in Serbia.
                                                           iv.      By the end of the 1990, free elections had also been held in the other republics, and new non-communist governments had taken over.
                                                             v.      Franjo Tudjman, new president of Croatia stirred up Croatian nationalism and wanted and independent state of Croatia.
                                                           vi.      Slovenia also wanted to become independent, and so the future looked bleak for the united Yugoslavia.
                                                         vii.      The situation was complicated because each republic had ethnic minorities; and the government which wanted the independence were not giving any guarantees to the ethnic minorities.
b.      The move to war: the serb—Croat war:-
                                                              i.      1991, Slovenia and Croatia declared themselves independent, against the wishes of Serbia.
                                                            ii.      Yugoslav federal army was ordered to station in those regions.
                                                          iii.      Civil war was avoided in Slovenia mainly because there were very few serbs living there; the EC was able to act as mediator, and secured the withdrawal of Yugoslav troops from Slovenia.
                                                           iv.      But in Croatia , with its large Serbian minority, had been invaded the eastern area of Croatia where many serbs lived.
                                                             v.      UN force was sent to police it .
                                                           vi.      This time the international community had recognized the independence of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia- Heregovina.
c.       The war in Bosnia- Herzegovina:-
                                                              i.      Bosnia, contained a mixed population of serbs, croats and muslims( majority).
                                                            ii.      Bosnia declared itself independent and the EC recognized its independence, but it failed to make sure that the new government guaranteed fair treatment for its minorities.
                                                          iii.      Bosnian serbs rejected the new constitution and objected to a muslim president .
                                                           iv.      Fighting soon broke out between Bosnian Serbs, who received help and encouragement from Serbia, and Bosnian Muslims ; Serbia hoped that it could get a large strip of land of eastern Bosnia.
                                                             v.      Meanwhile, Croatia attacked and occupied areas in the north of Bosnia where most of the Bosnian Croats lived.
                                                           vi.      Atrocities were committed by all sides, ethnic cleansing happened, which meant driving out the muslim civilian population from serb majority areas.
                                                         vii.      The UN force did its best to distribute aid, but its job was very difficult because it had no supporting artillery or aircraft.
                                                       viii.      The EC also reluctant to send any troops and American s felt that Eutope should be able to sort its own problems out.
                                                           ix.      However, they all agree d to put economic sanctions on Serbia to force them to stop helping the Bosnian serbs.
                                                             x.      1995, serb behavior eventually proved too much for the international community.
                                                           xi.      After this things moved quickly.
1.       Croats and Muslims agreed to fight together against the serbs.
2.       Americans agreed to use NATO airstrikes and to deploy a Rapid Reaction Force against the Bosnian serbs if they continued their aggression;
3.       The Bosnian serbs ignore this and continued to shell Sarajevo; NATO bombing of Bosnian serb positions, which continued until they agreed to move their weapons away from Sarajevo
4.       More UN troops were sent; Bosnian serb leaders had been indicted by the European court for war crimes.
5.       Americans now taking the lead, a cease-fire was arranged, and ageed to co-operate on peace arrangements; a peace conference met in the USA.
Ø  Bosnia was to remain one state, with a single elected parliament and president , and a unified Sarajevo as its capital;
Ø  State would consists of two sections- the Bosnian Muslims/ croat federation and the Bosnian Serb republic.
Ø  All indicted war criminals wer banned from public life;
Ø  All Bosnian refugees. Over 2 million had the right to return.
Ø  60000 NATO troops were to police the settlement;
Ø  It was understood that the UN would lift the economic sanctions on Serbia.

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